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Welcome to the Interventional Radiology page, where you will find details of the procedures we carry out and contact details for key staff. 

Consultant Radiologists  
  • Dr Aldo Camenzuli (Clinical Lead)
  • Dr Elizabeth O’Grady
  • Dr Rob Davis
  • Dr Julian Tuson (Part Time)
  • Dr Vamsidhar Rachapalli
  • Dr Gaurav Sundar
  • Dr Jen Jou Wong.
Contact Us
For all routine appointment enquiries, please contact the Radiology Call Centre on 0151 529 8514/ 8482/ 3424.

For all urgent enquiries please contact:
Interventional Radiology Theatre Co-ordinator on 0151 529 2368

Clare Grant
Advance Nurse Specialist

Stephanie Pennington
Principal Radiographer

or e-mail:Interventional.Radiology@aintree.nhs.uk

Procedures
​Interventional Radiology (IR) is a medical speciality that uses the various imaging and scanning facilities available to offer a range of minimally invasive procedures which in many cases can replace conventional open surgery.
Most of the procedures use fluoroscopy and/or ultrasound, done under local anaesthetic and can be done either as day case procedures or require only a very short hospital stay with rapid return to normal activities.

Angiography
Intraluminal injection of contrast, using a diagnostic catheter, in order to assess the anatomy and flow with x-ray based techniques, such as fluoroscopy.

Angioplasty
Balloon catheters are used to dilate narrowed blood vessels in order to improve blood flow.

Stent Placement
Tube-like metal scaffolds housed within a catheter are deployed inside aneurysmal or damaged vessel walls.

Percutaneous Biopsy
Removal of a specific sample of tissue, accessed through puncturing of the skin, for pathological assessment. Ultrasound guided biopsies have the benefit of using no radiation but, as a general rule of thumb, biopsies should be performed under the modality that best locates/ visualises the tissue in question (e.g. CT for lung).

Radiologically Inserted Gastrostomy (RIG)
Tube inserted through the anterior abdominal wall into the stomach for temporary or prolonged enteral feeding. Procedure usually performed under sedation. The stomach is distended with air using a nasogastric (NG) tube.
This makes the stomach margins more identifiable under x-ray guidance and brings the anterior wall of the stomach into contact with the anterior abdominal wall (helping to avoid puncture of bowel and other solid abdominal organs).
Two or three needle puncture are then made to fix the stomach to the anterior abdominal wall using 2 or 3 “T-shaped” fasteners (this process is known as gastropexy) before an incision in the middle of the fasteners is made in order to insert the gastrostomy catheter over a stiff wire. A balloon is inflated to keep the tip of the gastrostomy tube in place before injection of contrast to confirm accurate positioning.

Nephrostomy 
The procedure is performed to divert urine drainage when there is urinary obstruction (hydronephrosis) via a percutaneously inserted external catheter. With the patient positioned prone, a hollow needle is advanced through the skin into the renal collecting system. Usually there is flashback of urine before a wire is advanced and a draining catheter advancedover that wire under fluoroscopic guidance.

Drainage of Abscess
Insertion of a draining catheter into an abscess. Often, an abscess should be of a reasonable size (more than several centimetres in diameter) in order for the benefits of the procedure to outweigh the risks.

Inferior Vena Cava Filter
A filter is usually inserted into the infra-renal IVC to protect the pulmonary circulation from large emboli. Filters can be retrievable or permanent and can be inserted via the internal jugular vein or femoral vein. Venography is essential before placement in order to assess the vessel diameter and to check for variant anatomy such as a double IVC.
 
Embolization
The procedure involves delivery of a synthetic material through a plastic tube (catheter) in order to restrict blood flow into a blood vessel. It is often used to stop active haemorrhage but also in non-emergent settings such as debulking and devascularisation of tumours. Various embolic agents exist, some of which are designed to cause temporary occlusion (such as gelatin sponge) as well as permanent occlusion (such as metallic coils and PVA [polyvinyl alcohol] particles).
Procedures using this technique include uterine artery embolization (UFE), TACE (transarterial chemoembolization), endovascular management of acute haemorrhage in trauma. 

Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPSS)
Complex procedure in which an artificial communication is made between the portal vein and hepatic vein in order to bypass a congested liver capillary bed, thus reducing portal vein pressures and the morbidity associated with portal hypertension.
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